The Department of History Education was established on October 20, 1954, under the Department of Cultural History.
The Department of History Education was established on October 20, 1954, under the Department of Cultural History.
PTPG Bandung changed to FKIP-Unpad Bandung. But the Department of Cultural History has not changed.
The name of the study program changed to the Department of History Education. However, it had changed its name from the Department of Cultural History to the Department of History/Anthropology.
Become the Department of History Education under the auspices of the Faculty of Social Sciences Education.
The Department of History Education was founded on Wednesday, October 20, 1954, is one of the oldest institutions within the Indonesian Education University (UPI), and was directly led by Mohammad Yamin, who at that time served as Menetri PP and K (Teaching, Education, and Culture). ). This figure, in UPI’s academic circles, is also seen as one of the founding fathers of the PTPG (Teacher Education College), the forerunner of the UPI institution in Bandung. When this institution was first established, this Department was named “Department of Cultural History,” together with four other departments at PTPG Bandung, namely
1. Department of Education and Physical Education,
2. Department of Indonesian and English Language and Literature,
3. Department of Natural Science, and
4. Department of Economics and State Law.
The number of students of the Cultural History Department of the first batch in 1954 was 35 people, out of 215 students of PTPG Bandung. It is interesting to note that of the 35 students, the ratio between the number of male and female is 27: 8, but also because they are ethnically, culturally, of regional origin, language, and various social classes. In other words, students majoring in Cultural History consist of Sundanese and Javanese ethnicities and Batak, Minang, Acehnese, and other ethnicities in Indonesia, which of course directly or indirectly have implications for the interaction and social dynamics in the Department. The number of lecturers and assistant lecturers in the Department in the early days was still limited. Only about a dozen people came from diverse backgrounds, both ethnically and culturally, and from national backgrounds. Apart from Indonesians (Minang, Sundanese, and Javanese), there are also Dutch and Chinese lecturers. Such a composition of lecturers creates an academic atmosphere in the Department that is conducive to the creation of multicultural learning. Until the academic year 1957/1958, the names of the lecturers and assistant lecturers in the Cultural History Department were as: Prof. Mr. Muhammad Yamin, R.T.A. Soenaria, Drs. F.C.Wimmers, D.H.de Queljoe, Drs. Tan Pay Thjion, The Tjeng Sioe, Dachlan Mansur, Sie Tjoen Lay, Soeroto, Balnadi Sutadipura, Drs.J.F.Batenburg, Dra. Hartini Soewodo, Singgih Wibisono.
The structure of the Department’s courses in its early days was still simple. Subjects are calculated in numbers per week and distributed in years 1, 2, and 3 for junior undergraduate level (B.A.) and years 4 and 5 for Bachelor of Education level (Drs.). Meanwhile, in 1957 PTPG Bandung changed to FKIP-Unpad (Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Padjadjaran University) Bandung. However, the Department of Cultural History has not changed, and Muhammad Yamin still holds the head of the Department. In December 1957, this Department made a critical history when M. Yamin acted as a speaker at the First Indonesian History congress in Yogyakarta. His writing entitled “Tjatur-Sila Chalduniyah” marked an important chapter on the need for Indonesian history to be reviewed and rewritten using an approach and the perspective of the “national sentries.” M. Yamin died in 1962, and his personality is remembered as a national figure with diverse competencies: jurists, writers, politicians, historians, educators, and philosophers.
The lively atmosphere of the Department in the 1960s, as well as the atmosphere of universities and other universities, was in “educational dualism.” This is an implication of the division of the Ministry of PP and K into two ministries, namely the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education (PDM) and the Ministry of Higher Education and Knowledge). While FKIP is under the Ministry of PTIP, the Ministry of PDM has also established an educational institution, namely IPG (Institute for Teacher Education). The situation is getting more complicated because the leaders of each of these Ministries also have their respective political orientations and ideologies. This motivates FKIP students – especially those from the Department of Cultural History – to strive to end dualism in education. President Soekarno also seemed to have heard this struggle. At the request of students of the Department of Cultural History, the President assigned Roeslan Abdul Gani, one of President Soekarno’s trusted figures in the 1960s, not only to become chairman of the Cultural History department in 1962 (replacing M Yamin) but also became the first rector of the Bandung Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP) as a fusion of the FKIP and IPG institutions in 1963.
The problem of dualism in the field of education for a while can indeed be suppressed, but another problem arises which is also an impact of the dynamics of national politics, namely all institutions in Indonesia, including the academic community in higher education, to follow the flow of the Manipol USDEK, Indonesian Socialism, Democracy, and Guided Economy, as well as the National personality) with the NASAKOM (Nationalist, Religion, and Communist) axis. Lectures in the Department are required with ideological and political nuances. This national policy cannot be rejected because it is from the government and President Soekarno. Meanwhile, Roeslan Abdulgani himself must play his role as USMAN spokesman (Usdek Manipol spokesman).
This dynamic is also felt at IKIP Bandung in general and its Department, which causes lecturers, students, and employees to be polarized between political poles and their conflicting ideological thinking orientations. For those with a “nationalist,” “religious,” or “communist” view, there are scholarly and student organizations with different ideological-political orientations. Among IKP Bandung students, organizations with a nationalist style include GMNI (Indonesian National Student Movement and GERMINDO (Indonesian Student movement); Islamic organizations such as HMI (Islamic Student Association) and IMM (Muhammadiyah Student Association); and communist organizations. and socialists such as CGMI (Center for the Indonesian Student Movement) and GEMSOS (Socialist Student Movement) thrived. This made the atmosphere of academic life in the Department almost disrupted and messy to a significant degree.
Political life, which was full of political contradictions and conflicts, ended with the outbreak of the September 30th Movement in 1965. In the view of the academic community, especially anti-communist students, the incident was orchestrated by the PKI. Because of that, the anti-communist students moved to form KAMI (Indonesian Student Association) and held a series of demonstrations. They demanded President Soekarno that the PKI and its sympathetic organizations, such as the CGMI, be disbanded. With the outbreak of the Movement / PKI and its subsequent events, the communist power in Indonesia began to crumble. Meanwhile, at the same time, military forces began to emerge, in this case, the TNI-AD under the leadership of General Soeharto.
This change has implications for changes in social and political configuration. In the world of education and tertiary institutions in particular, which are never free from the influence of the political life of a country, they also feel the mainstream of this change. The consequences of this transition – like a revolution – often take their toll and eat its children. In this context, many lecturers, students, and employees of the IKIP Bandung – including those in the Department of Cultural History – who were considered involved and indicated directly or indirectly by the 1965 G30S / PKI incident were then dismissed ordered to move jobs. The role of students from the Department of Cultural History in the cleansing action of “leftists” is quite significant.
Academic problems in the department that have been almost neglected after being no longer led by Roeslan Abdulgani must be resolved immediately. This is where Harsojo’s thoughts and policies should be put forward. At that time, even when Harsojo was still the deputy head of the department, this institution changed its name from the Department of Cultural History to the Department of History / Anthropology. This change of name is partly because the addition of the word culture is considered too broad in scope, while “anthropology” is more specific and is a precise discipline. During Harsojo’s time as an anthropologist, the orientation of thought in the department changed from “ideological-political” to “scientific-academic.” The main task of the academic community in the department is to carry out diligent and thorough research, education, and dedication to build a comprehensive and objective perspective of science.
In the late 1960s, when Said Raksakusumah led the Department, the Department of History/Anthropology’s name underwent another change, from the Department of History / Anthropology to the Department of History Education, until now. This change is based on considerations because the Department is an inseparable part of an institution that, since its inception, has made “education” its primary vision and mission. For the history of the institution, this change of name is a common thing to remain relevant and functional with the needs and spirit of the times. As has been stated, UPI itself has undergone name changed several times: from PTPG in 1954, FKIP-UNPAD in 1957, IKIP Bandung (1963, and UPI in 1999. Likewise, with the name ‘faculty’ where the Department of History Education is ruled, FKIS (The Teaching Faculty of Social Sciences) became the FPIPS (Faculty of Social Studies Education) as it is now.
The Department of History Education then faced social changes in the 1970s / 1980s / 1990s with a dynamic response according to the demands of the times. Interestingly, since the 1970s, the Department of History Education has been led by a lecture, the best alma mater, and son at the alma mater. Ali Emran was a student of the first batch of Crocodile History (1954), then became a lecturer at his alma mater and was elected head of the Department of History Education. The following heads of departments were Suwarno Kartawiriaputra (student class of 1955); Helius Sjamsuddin (Childhood student 1957); Ismaun (Student class of 1957); Didih Sugandi (Student class of 1966); Nana Supriatna (1980 class student), and Andi Suwirta (class 1985 student), Dadang Supardan (class 1976 student).
To meet the history of teachers in junior and senior high schools, for example, in the 1980s, the Department opened a D-3 program. After working and serving at school, the D-3 alumni were allowed to continue the S-I program in the Department. The alumni of the Department, since graduating bachelor degree in 1957 until graduating with a bachelor of education in 2008 – of course, there are quite a lot, and it is estimated that around 5,500 people. They, the Department’s alumni, are generally history teachers in schools. However, few are essential positions in educational institutions or engaged in non-educational fields.
Entering the 1990s, the Department underwent many changes; Simultaneously, senior lecturers began to enter their retirement period, young lecturers recruited by the Department since the 1980s began to be prepared to continue the leadership relay in the Department. Those who studied S-2 and S-3, both inside and outside the country since the 1970s / 1980s, both at home and abroad, began to devote themselves entirely to the Department. In the 1990s, the Department also had a Professor again, who played a significant role in building a productive academic atmosphere. Furthermore, when the 21st century arrives, the Department welcomes it with great enthusiasm and optimism that progress is the keyword to continue to be pursued as a continuous learning process. If in 1954 the number of Department students was only 35 out of 215 students; then in 2008 the number of students from the Department of History Education has reached 506. Of course, it needs good and professional management, including the completeness of learning facilities.
Meanwhile, student candidates who want to enter the Department of History Education FPIPS UPI also remain high. From the time it was founded in 1954, this Department is still in demand by the public. There is no shortage of prospective students who wish to enter the Department. The number of lecturers also experienced significant progress, if in 1954 the Department’s Lecturers were only 13 out of a total of 146 lecturers; then in the following years, lecturers in the Department of History education continued to increase, the number of lecturers in the Department of History Education was 21 out of the total number of UPI lecturers, which totaled 1,300 people. Of these, there is one professor with doctoral education qualifications, three doctors who are not professors, 11 people with Masters degrees, and five lecturers who are currently pursuing a master’s degree. With the better educational qualifications of lecturers, it is expected that they have a positive correlation with the quality and learning outcomes in the Department.
Meanwhile, the curriculum structure in the Department has undergone several changes and improvements. If in 1954, the Department’s curriculum structure was still limited and straightforward, now, in 2009, the curriculum structure was more complex and broader. Changes in the Department’s curriculum align with national education policies and community needs. After experiencing changes and improvements curriculum in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, the curriculum in effect in the Department is the 2008 curriculum. In the new curriculum, students of the Department of History Education must take at least 144- 145 credits to complete their studies and obtain a Bachelor of Education (S.Pd). In general, students’ study period in the Department of History Education is between 5-5.5 years. In the future, efforts should be made to shorten students’ study periods by implementing a short semester during the holidays between semesters. Besides, of course, continuing to intensify the performance of PA (Academic Advisors) in the Department to be more enthusiastic and professional in helping students overcome academic problems and complete studies.
The Sociology-Anthropology Study Program itself in 2001/2002 was tested by accepting an offer of cooperation with the West Java Ministry of Religion, where scholars from IAIN were educated to become bachelors of education in the field of sociology-anthropology education. UPI has recorded the curriculum for Sociology-Anthropology education. However, when the Department was about to open new student admissions for the Sociology-Anthropology Education Study Program, the UPI leadership had not given permission. The solution, since 2002, the Department of History Education has been given an additional student quota, which is usually 1 class (45 people), to 2 classes (95 people). The hope of realizing the Department as an academic institution that is advanced, modern, and responsive to the development of scientific disciplines and the needs of society continues to be sought. The capital for that already exists, because, since 2000, the Department has received an assessment from BAN (National Accreditation Board) with a qualification of “A,” besides that this year the Department has also published Historia: Journal of Historical Education. In 2003 this journal was accredited as a national scientific journal by Ditjendikti Depdiknas RI. Publishing efforts in the Department were initiated in 2002 and have produced quite good scientific books. The young lecture in the Department is also quite enthusiastic and active in writing textbooks to benefit from historical education in schools and gain confident trust and publishers. Meanwhile, collaboration with other institutions was carried out, including with the West Java branch of the MSI (Indonesian historian community) and with the Deputy Assistant of History of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture in Jakarta, in seminars. If managed properly and professionally, all the potential that exists in the Department will enable this Department to carry out the Tri Dharma of Higher Education.